Many believe that land consolidation, an instrument that has achieved considerable improvements in the agricultural structure of Western European countries, is the key solution. This assumption is put through the test in this book by analysing the exact nature of land fragmentation in Central Europe. The exact nature is then confronted with the targets and prerequisites of three fragmentation-reducing instruments: land banking, land consolidation and parcel exchange. In addition, considerations of implementation are put forward. The main conclusion is that Western European instruments can be effective for reducing Central European land fragmentation, but in another way than is generally assumed.